femr2 Sunday, 17-12-2017, 08:09:16
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The Model

The first step in defining The Model was to source and calculate accurate base data specifying the physical dimensions and mass of the simulated Tower elements:

Tower Dimensions

  • Tower Width
  • Tower Height (Above Grade)
  • Tower Core Width
  • Tower Core Length
  • Tower Floors
  • Tower Floors (Above Grade)
  • Tower Floors (Below Grade)

Floor Dimensions
  • Floor Height (Storey Average)
  • Floor Height (Structural Average)
  • Floor Height (Floor to Ceiling Average)
  • Floor Area (Inside Core)
  • Floor Area (Outside Core)
  • Floor Area (Total)
  • Floor Concrete Thickness (Inside Core)
  • Floor Concrete Thickness (Outside Core)
  • Floor Concrete Area (Outside Core)
  • Floor Concrete Area (Inside Core)
  • Floor Concrete Volume (Average Outside Core)
  • Floor Concrete Volume (Average Inside Core)
  • Floor Concrete Volume (Average)

Tower Masses
  • Concrete Density (Outside Core)
  • Concrete Density (Inside Core)
  • Floor Mass Steel (Average)
  • Floor Mass Concrete (Above Grade Average)
  • Floor Mass Steel (Above Grade Average)
  • Floor Mass (Above Grade Average)
  • Floor Mass Construction Deal Load (Inside Core Above Grade)
  • Floor Mass Static Dead Load (Inside Core Above Grade)
  • Floor Mass Live Load (Inside Core Above Grade)
  • Floor Mass Construction Deal Load (Outside Core Above Grade)
  • Floor Mass Static Dead Load (Outside Core Above Grade)
  • Floor Mass Live Load (Outside Core Above Grade)
  • Tower Mass (Above Grade)
  • Tower Mass Concrete (Above Grade)
  • Tower Mass Steel
  • Mass of Aircraft
  • Mass of Roof and Antenna

Step 2 was to define some static energetics properties:

Static Energetics Properties
  • Concrete Energy (Fracture Outside Core)
  • Concrete Energy (Fracture Inside Core)
  • Concrete Energy (Crush Outside Core 60)
  • Collapse Energy per Floor (Perimeter)
  • Collapse Energy per Floor (Core)
  • Concrete Crush Scale (avg)
  • Concrete Crush Scale (Maximum)
  • Concrete Crush Scale (Minimum)
  • Energy to Crush Concrete per Floor (avg)
  • Energy to Collapse Support per Floor (avg)
  • Floor Mass Loss Percentage per Floor Impact
  • Cap Mass Loss Percentage per Floor Impact

Step 3 was to model the dynamic energetics behaviour of the collapse:

Dynamic Energetics Properties
  • Initial Failure Floor
  • Initial Cap Floors
  • Initial Cap Mass
  • First Stage Collapse Time
  • First Stage First Impact Velocity
  • First Stage Final Impact Velocity
  • Second Stage Final Impact Velocity
  • Second Stage Collapse Time
  • FULL COLLAPSE TIME
  • Collapse End Floor
  • Energy Tower (Maximum)
  • Energy to Heat per Tower
  • Energy to Break Support per Tower (Above Grade)
  • Energy to crush concrete per Tower (Above Grade)
  • Energy Usage
  • Energy Remaining
  • Air Density
  • "Free-fall" Timing
  • Floor Air Volume

Per Storey Dynamic Energetics Properties
  • Mass Initial
  • Velocity Initial
  • Time To Fall One Storey
  • Velocity Pre Impact
  • Kinetic Energy Pre Impact
  • Mass Post Impact
  • Velocity Post Impact
  • Kinetic Energy Post Impact
  • Kinetic Energy Consumed as Heat
  • Kinetic Energy Consumed Breaking Support Structure
  • Kinetic Energy Consumed Crushing Concrete
  • Kinetic Energy Remaining
  • Mass Lost
  • Mass Final
  • Velocity Final
  • Time Total

Please view the WTC Energetics (Download) spreadsheet for full details.

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