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femr2 Thursday, 30-03-2017, 14:43:43
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Simulator Model Parameters [22]
Definition of the parameters utilised by the WTC Collapse Simulator calculation model.

This Parameter is defined as the acceleration in metres per second squared of a body in falling motion.

Value:
  • 9.80665 m/s/s

Dependant Parameters:
  • First Stage First Impact Velocity
  • Second Stage Final Impact Velocity
  • Sheet - Potential : Column - Velocity
  • Sheet - Main : Column - Velocity PreImpact
  • Sheet - Main : Column - Time ToFall

Source:
  • Standard SI Unit

Each Tower was square, so this Parameter is defined as the external width of one side of the Tower.

Value:
  • 207ft = 63.0936m

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Area (Total)

Source:
  • NISTNCSTAR1-2A PAGE 35

This Parameter is defined as the height of the simulated Tower above ground level. (Above Grade)

Value:
  • WTC 1 : 1368ft = 416.9664m
  • WTC 2 : 1362ft = 415.1376m

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Height (Storey Average)

Model Notes:

  • Each Tower also had 6 underground Storeys which are not included in this figure.
  • The additional height (and mass) of the antenna mast is defined separately and is not included in this value.

Source:
  • NISTNCSTAR1-2A PAGE 36

The Central Core is rectangular in shape, so the width is defined as the short side of the rectangular area.

Value:
  • 87ft = 26.5176m

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Area (Inside Core)
  • Floor Concrete Area (Outside Core)

Source:
  • NISTNCSTAR1-2A PAGE 36

The Central Core is rectangular in shape, so the length is defined as the long side of the rectangular area.

Value:
  • 135ft = 41.1480m

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Area (Inside Core)
  • Floor Concrete Area (Outside Core)

Source:
  • NISTNCSTAR1-2A PAGE 36

This Parameter defines the total number of floors above and below ground for the Tower.

Value:

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Mass Steel (Average)

The Parameter defines the number of Floors the Towers has above ground level.

Value:
  • 110

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Height (Storey Average)
  • Floor Mass Concrete (Above Grade Average)
  • Tower Mass (Above Grade)
  • Initial Cap Floors
  • Energy to Break Support per Tower (Above Grade)
  • Energy to crush concrete per Tower (Above Grade)

This Parameter defines the number of underground (Below Grade) Storeys in the Tower.

Value:
  • 6

Dependant Parameters:
  • Tower Floors (Total)
  • Floor Mass Live Load (Inside Core Below Grade)

Source:
  • NISTNCSTAR1-2A PAGE 35

This Parameter defines the average height of one Storey of the Tower, including the height of the physical Floor/Ceiling for each Floor.

Value:
  • Tower Height (Above Grade) / Tower Floors (Above Grade)

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Height (Floor to Ceiling Average)



This parameter defines the average height of the physical structural elements separating one floor Storey space from the next Storey space.

Value:
  • 29.4960in = 0.7492m

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Height (Floor to Ceiling Average)

Model Notes:
  • Some Floors differ in thickness, but specific data has not yet been sourced.
  • Energy and time to collapse this structure is not included in the Model yet.
  • Structure would also reduce any initial impact surface area, increasing the probability that concrete sections would be broken into larger regular sections, rather than pulverised.

Source:
  • TBC

This parameter defines the absolute Floor area inside the Tower Core.

Value:
  • Tower Core Width * Tower Core Length

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Area (Outside Core)
  • Floor Concrete Area (Outside Core)
  • Floor Concrete Area (Inside Core)
  • Sheet - Tower Mass : Column - NIST Inside Core Live Load

Model Notes:
  • As the Central Core area Floors contain significant 'holes' to facilitate lift shafts and stairways, additional parameters are defined for the purpose of determining how much concrete each floor contains.

This Parameter is defined as the area of each Tower Floor outside of the Central Core Area.

Value:
  • Floor Area (Total) - Floor Area (Inside Core)

Dependant Parameters:
  • Sheet - Tower Mass : Column - NIST Outside Core Live Load
  • Sheet - Tower Mass : Column - NIST Outside Core Static Dead Load
  • Sheet - Tower Mass : Column - NIST Outside Core Construction Dead Load

This Parameter is defined as the total surface area of each Floor, both inside and outside the Central Core.

Value:
  • Tower Width * Tower Width

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Area (Outside Core)

This Parameter is defined as the surface area of concrete for each Tower Floor outside of the Central Core area.

Value:
  • (((36*2*Convert_ft_m)+Tower Core Width)*((60*2*Convert_ft_m)+Tower Core Length))-(Floor Area (Inside Core))

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Air Volume
  • Sheet - Concrete Mass : Column - Outside Core Area

Model Notes:

  • The physical dimensions of the concrete slab have been sourced, which account for the fact that the concrete slab does not fill the entire surface area of the available floor space.
  • 36ft span outside Central Core on short path.
  • 60ft span outside Central Core on long path.

Source:

  • NISTNCSTAR1-2A PAGE 38

This Parameter is defined as the average surface area of the concrete slab inside the Central Core for each Floor of the Tower.

Value:
  • Floor Area (Inside Core) * 0.6

Dependant Parameters:
  • Sheet - Concrete Mass : Column - Inside Core Area

Model Notes:
  • The modifier of 0.6 is used to account for the fact that not all the floor space in the Central Core had a concrete slab, such as elevator shafts and some stairwell sections.
  • This value probably reduces the concrete volume below the actual figure.
  • A more accurate estimation should be used if data can be determined.
  • The underestimation of the concrete volume works in favour of the official collapse theory.

Source:
  • Estimation based on inspection of PAC WTC Building Plans

This Parameter is defined as the average volume of concrete contained in the concrete slab outside of the Central Core for each Tower Floor.

Value:
  • AVERAGE('Concrete Mass'!F8:F123)

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Concrete Volume (Average)

Model Notes:
  • Titled 'average' as the actual depth of the concrete slab varies on specific floors depending upon the floor 'type' as listed in the 'mass' worksheets.

This Parameter is defined as the average volume of concrete contained in the concrete slab inside of the Central Core for each Tower Floor.

Value:
  • AVERAGE('Concrete Mass'!M8:M123)

Dependant Parameters:
  • Floor Concrete Volume (Average)

Model Notes:
  • Titled 'average' as the actual depth of the concrete slab varies on specific floors depending upon the floor 'type' as listed in the 'mass' worksheets.

This Parameter is defined as the the average volume of concrete contained in the concrete slab both inside and outside of the Central Core for each Tower Floor.

Value:
  • Floor Concrete Volume (Average Outside Core) + Floor Concrete Volume (Average Inside Core)

Dependant Parameters:

  • None.

Model Notes:
  • This value is calculated to highlight the scale of error in Greenings value for the same parameter.
  • The Model includes more accurate specific Floor concrete slab thicknesses by Floor type, so this average value is not subsequently used.


This Parameter is defined as the density of the concrete used in the floor slab outside the Central core.

Value:
  • 100 * Convert_pcf_kgm3

Dependant Parameters:
  • Concrete Energy (Fracture Inside Core)
  • Sheet - Crush Energy : Column - Outside Core Particle Mass
  • Sheet - Concrete Mass : Column - Outside Core Density

Source:
  • NIST (100PCF - pounds per cubic foot)

This Parameter is defined as the density of the concrete used in the floor slab inside the Central Core.

Value:
  • 150 * Convert_pcf_kgm3

Dependant Parameters:
  • Concrete Energy (Fracture Inside Core)
  • Sheet - Crush Energy : Column - Inside Core Particle Mass
  • Sheet - Concrete Mass : Column (partial) - Outside Core Density
  • Sheet - Concrete Mass : Column - Inside Core Density
Model Notes:
  • Both Outside and Inside Core Density Parameters are Dependants as some of the Floors outside of the Central Core were constructed using the higher density concrete used inside the Core.
Source:
  • NIST (150PCF - pounds per cubic foot)

This Parameter is defined as the energy required to fracture a unit area of concrete outside the Central Core.

Value:
  • 100

Dependant Parameters:
  • Concrete Energy (Fracture Inside Core)
  • Sheet - Crush Energy : Column - Outside Core Crush Energy

Model Notes:
  • The source of this value is unreliable, and a more valid source should be determined.
  • As one purpose of this study is the refudation of Greenings' papers, this value is included.

Source:
  • F. R. Greening

This note will be removed when the full Parameter Set has been documented.

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