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Forum » WTC Impacts » Jet Fuel and Elevator Shafts » Jet Fuel
Jet Fuel
femr2Date: Friday, 20-03-2009, 18:40:52 | Message # 1
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How Much Jet Fuel Actually Remained Within Each of the Twin Towers

WTC 2 - "Flight 175"

Boeing 767 fuel capacity23980 US gallons
Flight 175 Impact Fuel9107 US gallons
Flight 175 fuel inside tower7555 US gallons
Fuel outside Tower1552 US gallons
Fuel left inside Tower after fireballtbc *
Fuel left within impact zone **3778 US gallons

* It is not yet clear whether an additional 20% should be removed from the initial fuel remaining within the building.
** NIST state half the fuel in the impact zone after fireball flowed away.

WTC 1 - "Flight 11"
Boeing 767 fuel capacity23980 US gallons
Flight 11 fuel inside tower8684 US gallons
Fuel left within impact zone4342 US gallons

Flight 11 figures need recheck.

1 US gallon = 0.13368 cubic feet

Initial Fuel Distribution
Flight 175
FloorUS Gallons
Flight 11
FloorUS Gallons

* An additional fuel distribution list is contained within the NIST report, which contains slightly different values. It is also unclear whether the initial 20% should be removed.
femr2Date: Thursday, 02-04-2009, 13:06:57 | Message # 2
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What Temperature Does Jet Fuel Actually Burn At

The maximum temperature Jet Fuel (JET A-1) burns at, which requires a controlled, high-pressure burn is 980°C (1796 °F)

HOWEVER, the OPEN-AIR temperature, also termed 'dirty burn', is the temperature a fuel burns at in an unpressurised and uncontrolled burn, and for JET A-1 is:

260-315°C (500-599°F) *

Fuel inside the Towers was not in a pressurised and controlled burn state.

In addition, all of the jet fuel that remained on the impact floors was consumed within a few minutes of each impact. (Source)

Commercial jet fuel is basically refined kerosene. Kerosene is the fuel used in many domestic camping stoves.

Jet fuel is a colorless, combustible petroleum distillate liquid.

Jet fuel weighs about 3.1 kg/gal (0.81kg/L).

It is comprised of hydrocarbons with a carbon range of C9 - C17.

The hydrocarbons are mainly alkanes CnH2n+2, with n ranging from 9 to 17.

It has a flash point within the range 42º C - 72º C (110º F - 162º F).

And an autoignition temperature of 210º C (410º F).

Depending on the supply of oxygen, jet fuel burns by one of three chemical reactions:

(1) CnH2n+2 + (3n+1)/2 O2 => n CO2 + (n + 1) H2O (jet burner) or (pre-mixed flame)

(2) CnH2n+2 + (2n+1)/2 O2 => n CO + (n + 1) H2O (diffuse flame)

(3) CnH2n+2 + (n+1)/2 O2 => n C + (n + 1) H2O (diffuse flame)

Reaction (1) occurs when jet fuel is well mixed with air before being burnt, as for example, in jet engines.
Reactions (2) and (3) occur when a pool of jet fuel burns.
When reaction (3) occurs the carbon formed shows up as soot in the flame. This makes the smoke very dark.

femr2Date: Thursday, 02-04-2009, 13:52:50 | Message # 3
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The tbc cubic feet volume of jet fuel that remained in WTC1 and tbc cubic feet in WTC2 are inconsequential amounts relative to the size of the buildings.

NIST assumes that half of that jet fuel flowed away from the impact floors and did not contribute to the fires that initiated the building collapses.

NIST states “the simulations were insensitive to both the amount and distribution of the jet fuel. Sensitivity studies showed that the amount of fuel spilled in the simulation only influenced the results of the first few minutes; the long-term behavior of the simulated fires was unaffected."

* And beachnut is a dick :o) lol.

newtonDate: Wednesday, 26-08-2009, 06:00:37 | Message # 4
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it should be noted, though, that energetically speaking, that cube packs more punch than a equal cube of tower. from my fireman friend, i know a small propane tank can blow out windows and doors, and even elevator doors inside an apartment lobby, from at least tens of meters. (50, 100?)

someone threw one into the garbage bin, and there was a bin fire. (perhaps budding arsonists?) he said the instant blast of heat was incredible, as he was running away from the apartment when she blew.

that's pressurized propane, though, not kerosene. i don't recall hearing of exploding kerosene lanterns, lol.

certainly propane exploding burns WAY more efficiently. still. a perspective.

but, then, there's not THAT much difference between kerosene and office contents. carpet and plastic, wood and paper burn quite nicely at the right temperature.

janishart22Date: Thursday, 15-09-2022, 19:05:34 | Message # 5
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Thanks for your ideas in this theme

Amsterdam airport transfer
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